Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Significant Accounting Policies

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Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2015
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Significant Accounting Policies
Note 1. Significant Accounting Policies

Business

We are a leading, less-than-truckload (“LTL”), union-free motor carrier providing regional, inter-regional and national LTL services, which include ground and air expedited transportation and consumer household pickup and delivery, through a single integrated organization. More than 97% of our revenue is derived from these services. In addition to our core LTL services, we offer a broad range of value-added services including container drayage, truckload brokerage, supply chain consulting and warehousing.

We have one operating segment, and no single customer exceeds 10% of our revenue.

Basis of Presentation

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

Certain amounts in prior years have been reclassified to conform prior years’ financial statements to the current presentation.

Unless the context requires otherwise, references in these Notes to “Old Dominion,” the “Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to Old Dominion Freight Line, Inc.

Revenue and Expense Recognition

We recognize revenue based upon when our transportation services have been completed in accordance with the bill of lading contract, our general tariff provisions or contractual agreements with our customers. Generally, this occurs when we complete the delivery of a shipment. For transportation services not completed at the end of a reporting period, we use a percentage of completion method to allocate the appropriate revenue to each separate reporting period. Under this method, we develop a factor for each uncompleted shipment by dividing the actual number of days in transit at the end of a reporting period by that shipment’s standard delivery time schedule. This factor is applied to the total revenue for that shipment and revenue is allocated between reporting periods accordingly.

Expenses are recognized when incurred.

Allowances for Uncollectible Accounts and Revenue Adjustments

We maintain an allowance for uncollectible accounts for estimated losses resulting from the inability of our customers to make required payments. We estimate this allowance by analyzing the aging of our customer receivables, our historical loss experience and other trends and factors affecting the credit risk of our customers. Write-offs occur when we determine an account to be uncollectible and could differ from our allowance estimate as a result of factors such as changes in the overall economic environment or risks surrounding our customers. Additional allowances may be required if the financial condition of our customers were to deteriorate, resulting in an impairment of their ability to make payments. We periodically review the underlying assumptions in our estimate of the allowance for uncollectible accounts to ensure that the allowance reflects the most recent trends and factors.

We also maintain an allowance for estimated revenue adjustments resulting from future billing corrections, customer allowances, money-back service guarantees and other miscellaneous revenue adjustments. These revenue adjustments are recorded in our revenue from operations. We use historical experience, trends and current information to update and evaluate these estimates.

Credit Risk

Financial instruments that potentially subject us to concentrations of credit risk consist principally of customer receivables. We perform initial and ongoing credit evaluations of our customers to minimize credit risk. We generally do not require collateral but may require prepayment of our services under certain circumstances. Credit risk is generally diversified due to the large number of entities comprising our customer base and their dispersion across many different industries and geographic regions.

Cash and Cash Equivalents

We consider cash on hand and deposits in banks along with certificates of deposit and short-term marketable securities with original maturities of three months or less as cash and cash equivalents.

Property and Equipment

Property and equipment are stated at cost. Major additions and improvements are capitalized, while maintenance and repairs that do not improve or extend the lives of the respective assets are charged to expense as incurred. We capitalize the cost of tires mounted on purchased revenue equipment as a part of the total equipment cost. Subsequent replacement tires are expensed at the time those tires are placed in service. We assess the realizable value of our long-lived assets and evaluate such assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable.

Depreciation of property and equipment is calculated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the related assets. The following table provides the estimated useful lives by asset type: 
Structures
  
7 to 30 years
Revenue equipment
  
4 to 15 years
Other equipment
  
2 to 20 years
Leasehold improvements
  
Lesser of economic life or life of lease


Depreciation expense, which includes the amortization of capital leases, was $164.8 million, $145.8 million and $126.4 million for 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively.

Goodwill

Intangible assets have been acquired in connection with business combinations and are comprised of goodwill. Goodwill is calculated as the excess cost over the fair value of assets acquired and is not subject to amortization. We review goodwill annually for impairment as a single reporting unit, unless circumstances dictate more frequent assessments, in accordance with Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2011-08, Testing Goodwill for Impairment. ASU 2011-08 permits an initial assessment, commonly referred to as "step zero", of qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount and also provides a basis for determining whether it is necessary to perform the two-step goodwill impairment test required by Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") Topic 350.

We performed the qualitative assessment of goodwill on our annual measurement date of October 1, 2015 and determined that it was more likely than not that the fair value of our reporting unit would be greater than its carrying amount. Therefore, we determined it was not necessary to perform the two-step goodwill impairment test. Furthermore, there has been no historical impairment of our goodwill.

Claims and Insurance Accruals

As of December 31, 2015, we maintained a self-insured retention ("SIR") of $2.75 million per occurrence for bodily injury and property damage ("BIPD") claims; a deductible of $100,000 per claim for cargo loss and damage; and a deductible of $1.0 million per occurrence for workers' compensation claims. We also had an SIR of $500,000 per occurrence (with a $400,000 aggregate over our retention level) for group health claims.

Claims and insurance accruals reflect the estimated cost of claims for cargo loss and damage, BIPD, workers' compensation, group health and group dental not covered by insurance. These accruals include amounts for future claims development and claims incurred but not reported, which are primarily based on historical claims development experience. The related costs for cargo loss and damage and BIPD are charged to "Insurance and claims" on our Statements of Operations, while the related costs for workers' compensation, group health and group dental are charged to "Salaries, wages and benefits" on our Statements of Operations.

Our liability for claims and insurance totaled $119.2 million and $107.7 million at December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively. The long-term portions of those reserves were $74.3 million and $65.4 million for 2015 and 2014, respectively, which were included in “Other non-current liabilities” on our Balance Sheets.
 
Share-Based Compensation

Awards of phantom stock to employees and directors are accounted for as a liability under ASC topic 718, Compensation - Stock Compensation. ASC topic 718 requires changes in the fair value of our liability to be recognized as compensation cost over the requisite service period for the percentage of requisite service rendered each period. Changes in the fair value of the liability that occur after the requisite service period are recognized as compensation cost during the period in which the changes occur. We remeasure the liability for the outstanding awards at the end of each reporting period based on the closing price of our common stock at that date, and the compensation cost is based on the change in fair value for each reporting period.

Advertising

The costs of advertising our services are expensed as incurred and are included in “General supplies and expenses” on our Statements of Operations. Advertising costs charged to expense totaled $22.9 million, $19.3 million and $16.7 million for 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively.

Fair Values of Financial Instruments

The carrying values of financial instruments in current assets and current liabilities approximate their fair value due to the short maturities of these instruments. The carrying value of our total long-term debt, including current maturities, and capital lease obligations was $133.8 million and $155.7 million at December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively. The estimated fair value of our total long-term debt and capital lease obligations was $139.1 million and $165.5 million at December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively. The fair value measurement of our senior notes was determined using a discounted cash flow analysis that factors in current market yields for comparable borrowing arrangements under our credit profile. Since this methodology is based upon market yields for comparable arrangements, the measurement is categorized as Level 2 under the three-level fair value hierarchy as established by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the “FASB”).

Stock Repurchase Program

On November 10, 2014, we announced that our Board of Directors had approved a stock repurchase program authorizing us to repurchase up to an aggregate of $200.0 million of our outstanding common stock. We may repurchase shares from time-to-time in open market purchases or through privately negotiated transactions. The program expires on November 6, 2016. Shares of our common stock repurchased by us under the repurchase program are canceled at the time of repurchase and are authorized but unissued shares of our common stock. As of December 31, 2015, we had repurchased 1,753,039 shares for $119.6 million, and $80.4 million remained authorized under the program.

Comprehensive Income

The Company has no components of other comprehensive income. Accordingly, net income equals comprehensive income for all periods presented in this report.

Earnings Per Share

Earnings per common share is computed using the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period. There were no potentially dilutive shares outstanding at the end of each period presented in this report.

Supplemental Disclosure of Noncash Investing and Financing Activities

Investing and financing activities that are not reported in the Statements of Cash Flows due to their non-cash nature are summarized below:
 
 
Year Ended December 31,
(In thousands)
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
Acquisition of property and equipment by capital lease
 
$
3,552

 
$

 
$


In addition, during 2013, we completed a nonmonetary exchange of property. We acquired a service center with a fair value of $6.6 million, which resulted in a gain of $3.4 million. The resulting gain was recorded in "Miscellaneous expenses, net" on our Statements of Operations.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-09, "Revenue from Contracts with Customers" (Topic 606). This ASU supersedes the previous revenue recognition requirements in ASC Topic 605—Revenue Recognition and most industry-specific guidance throughout the ASC. The core principle within this ASU is to recognize revenues when promised goods or services are transferred to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration expected to be received for those goods or services. In August 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-14, "Revenue from Contracts with Customers", which deferred the effective date for ASU 2014-09 by one year to fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, while providing the option to early adopt for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016. Transition methods under ASU 2014-09 must be through either (i) retrospective application to each prior reporting periods presented, or (ii) retrospective application with a cumulative effect adjustment at the date of initial application. We continue to assess the method of application and impact, if any, of the adoption of ASU 2014-09 on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

In April 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-05, "Customer's Accounting for Fees Paid in a Cloud Computing Arrangement" (Topic 350). This ASU provides additional guidance to customers about whether a cloud computing arrangement includes a software license. Under ASU 2015-05, if a cloud computing arrangement contains a software license, customers should account for the license element of the arrangement in a manner consistent with the acquisition of other software licenses. If the arrangement does not contain a software license, customers should account for the arrangement as a service contract. The Company will adopt the provisions of ASU 2015-05 in the first quarter of fiscal 2016, and is currently evaluating the impact on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

In April 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-03, "Interest - Imputation of Interest: Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issuance Costs" (Topic 835-30). This ASU requires debt issuance costs related to a recognized debt liability be presented in the balance sheet as a direct deduction from the related debt's carrying value, which is consistent with the presentation of debt discounts. This ASU is effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2015. The Company does not believe the adoption of ASU 2015-03 will have a material impact on its financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

In November 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-17, "Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes" (Topic 740). This ASU requires that deferred tax assets and liabilities be classified as noncurrent on the balance sheet rather than being separated into current and noncurrent. The ASU is effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2016, and early adoption is permitted. We early adopted this ASU on a retrospective basis during the fourth quarter of 2015. Accordingly, deferred income tax assets in the amount of $29.4 million that were formerly classified as current assets at December 31, 2014, have been reclassified to non-current deferred income tax liabilities in our balance sheet.

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, “Leases” (Topic 842). This ASU requires a lessee to recognize a right-of-use asset and a lease liability under most operating leases in its balance sheet. The ASU is effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the effects that the adoption of ASU 2016-02 will have on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.